What is "Female Genital Cutting" and why are a majority of Muslims in S'pore practising it?

Aug 10, 2021 | 🚀 Fathership

Approximately 75% of Muslim women have undergone Female Genital Cutting (FGC) according to a survey done by activist group "End FGC Singapore" in late 2020.

The procedure is more prevalent in the Malay-Muslim community compared to the Indian and Chinese Muslim community.

Many Malay Muslims, especially amongst the older generations, believe the procedure reduces a woman's libido and decreases the risk of extramarital sexual affairs.

Others believe it is a compulsory part of Islamic law, though it is not listed as mandatory in the Quran.

Origins of female circumcision

Nobody knows where female circumcision - also known as female genital mutilation (FGM) - first originated from but anthropologists have proposed that it may have existed in ancient Egypt at least 2,000 years ago, noting the discovery of circumcised mummies.

There are several theories as to why FGM is performed.

Some advocates of FGM invoke medical reasons – for example, hygiene, or an enlarged clitoris that should be cut.

One goes back to the days of rampant slavery, thousands of years ago, well before Judaism, Christianity or Islam.

According to a publication by scholar Gerry Mackie, one way for a slave-trader to get more money was to sew up their young female slaves, in order to fetch a better price.

Another explanation relates to a woman’s worth at marriage: if her virginity is intact, she’s worth more. It also protects women from rape.

Female circumcision is not an Islamic religious practice although some Muslims have adopted the practice as a religious requirement.

How is female circumcision performed?

WHO classifies FGM into 4 major types:

  • Type 1: the pricking of the tip of the clitoris with a sharp instrument, like a pin, which leaves little to no damage.
  • Type 2: "Clitoridectomy" - the removal of part or all of the clitoris as well as part or all of the labia
  • Type 3: "Infibulation" - the excision or removal of the clitoris plus the excision of the labia minora as well as the inner walls of the labia majora. The raw edges of the vulva are then sewn together. When this heals it forms a wall over the vaginal opening. A small sliver of wood, or similar object, is inserted into the vagina to keep open a small hole so urine and menstrual fluid can pass.
  • Type 4: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, such as pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterising (burning) the genital area, and others not specified in the first three types.

What type of FGC is performed in Singapore?

Women in Singapore practice the Type 1 female circumcision, the less extreme among the 4 types listed by WHO, and the procedure is typically carried out on girls before the age of two.

Circumcisions in Singapore are done by female doctors at a handful of Muslim clinics and can cost less than SGD 50. Anesthesia is generally not needed.

What does Islam say about female circumcision?

In Islam, Muslims refer to two primary sources for guidance: first is the Quran and the second is the "Hadith" - a compilation of Prophet Muhammad's teachings that include his words, actions, and things he approved of.

Muslims refer back to the hadith to make sense of verses in the Quran that may sound ambiguous.

For example, the Quran commands Muslims to perform pilgrimage but does not elaborate in detail the specifics. The Hadith in turn, provides the guidance - like a manual. It is also important to note that while there is only one version of the Quran there are multiple versions of the hadiths - some authenticated and some without substantiated backing by Islamic scholars.

There are four instances in which female circumcision is mentioned in the Hadiths. However, the intepretation of these Hadiths are subjected to debate by Islamic scholars.

According to some scholarly interpretations, female circumcision is not mandatory. The scholar or "School of Thoughts" that a majority of Singaporean and Malaysian Muslims follow considered the practice obligatory and a religious necessity.

What does MUIS say about female circumcision?

MUIS Head of Strategic Communications Ibrahim Sawifi has said MUIS "does not condone any procedures which bring harm to the individual", adding that the council has "always held the position that FGM should be avoided".

Manager of Singapore’s Islamic Scholars and Religious Teachers Association Zhulkeflee Haji Ismail said that the custom of female circumcision has no religious basis.

"Some people just follow customs without knowing what they're about," he added.

While discouraged, female circumcision is not illegal in Singapore.

“Female circumcision, if done in the proper manner as prescribed by our Prophet Mohammad, ought to be continued,” one Malay woman from Singapore, who has recently had her granddaughter cut, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

The retired civil servant, who asked not to be named, said this improved hygiene and had no adverse affect on a woman’s sex life.

She said the amount removed was “very tiny” and should not be classed as FGM because it was different to the more extreme types of cutting which can cause serious health problems.

The World Health Organisation, however, defines FGM as procedures which intentionally alter or causes injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons and that provide no health benefits.


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中国人打败中国人,安徽砀山人李西廷成2022年新加坡“首富”!

Sep 25, 2022 | 🚀 Fathership

近日,福布斯新发布了2022新加坡富豪榜,安徽砀山人——迈瑞医疗的李西廷以156亿美元(1090亿人民币)的身价,成为新加坡新任首富

可笑的是,2019年开始,新加坡富豪榜变成了中国人的秀场!

2019年,海底捞的张勇夫妇(四川人),以138亿美元的身家跃居新加坡首富

2020年,张勇夫妇以190亿美元,蝉联新加坡首富

2021年,冬海集团李小冬(天津人),以211亿美元击败海底捞张勇,成为新加坡首富,可是风光背后,李小冬感受到了任正非所说的“寒气”,不到一年时间,财富缩水80%

2022年,李西廷问鼎新加坡首富,他创立的迈瑞医疗正以肉眼可见的速度席卷国内医疗器械市场。

疫情的爆发,让迈瑞医疗开始“大口呼吸”,迅速进入爆发期!

随着我国老龄化程度加深,高龄人群对于呼吸机、监护仪、心电图仪等医疗设备需求激增,造就了国内广阔的市场空间。

李西廷也看到了这一市场蓝海,带着迈瑞闯入这一赛道。

创业之初的迈瑞,仅是一个小小的进口医疗设备代理商。看着进口医疗的高昂价格,以及作代理微薄的利差,让李西廷萌生了自己研发的念头。加之当时国家也支持科学研究,支持企业研发,迈瑞随后也获得了深圳官方的支持,出面为其协调了100万无息贷款支持。

曾几何时,感恩于政策的支持,李西廷誓言:一定要为国争光!

作为“中国医疗器械第一股”,迈瑞的产品,相比昂贵的进口医疗设备,物优价廉的优势突显出来。加上,国内不断提倡发展本国科技企业,支持国产,因此,迈瑞有了越来越多的市场!

近两年yi情致使世界各国急需采购呼吸机和监护仪等设备,迈瑞轻松开拓了海外市场,也赚得盆满钵满。

去年一年营收超250亿美元,总市值一路飙升至3500亿,被誉为“医疗界华为”,李西廷更因此获得了“呼吸机大王”的称号。

李西廷坦言:疫情让迈瑞的发展,提前了至少五年!

迈瑞成功了,李西廷也拥有了千亿身家。

可是,令人唏嘘的是,他早在2018年就移民新加坡,加入新加坡籍,曾经的豪言壮志不过是一句口号!

小编想问的是:

迈瑞以后是算外资还是内资?

还有没有政策扶持?

总不能什么便宜好事都占尽,最后赚得盆满钵满的,转身变成了外国友人!

在2022新加坡富豪榜上,我们又看到了一个熟悉的身影——立邦漆创始人吴清亮以130亿资产屈居第三 。

总有新人换旧人!

自张勇2019年成为新加坡首富以来,首富人选换了一茬又一茬,而不变的是他们都是中国移民。

谁将是未来替换李西廷新人呢?最近,新加坡媒体锁定了一个新目标:“支付宝女王”彭蕾!

“支付宝女王”彭蕾被爆出,和丈夫携巨额资产移民新加坡,并在当地购买了一套价值3亿人民币的大平层,引得新加坡媒体舆论热议:新加坡首富宝座或将易主!

网友们开始调侃:新加坡富豪榜,是“新加坡籍中国富豪榜”!

为何中国富豪们都如此热衷移民新加坡?

作为“全球合法避税天堂”,新加坡最吸引富豪的是“省钱”。新加坡是全球领先的私人银行和财富管理中心之一,拥有亚洲最为安全的银行。

移民新加坡+海外避税天堂公司+与内地有协定的香港公司——这是富豪们做税务筹划(避税)+资产保全的最基本的操作!

富豪们赚了大把的钱,更想省更多的税,而这钱,又不可能让他捐给国家和人民,更甭谈捐给地球和人类,他们只想牢牢的守住这些钱,做好财富的传承。

事实上,不管这些富豪们,是为了避税,还是为了企业发展的考虑,选择移民都是个人的权利,只要能创造价值,回馈社会,也无可厚非!

但小编个人觉得——人可以过去,但钱请留在国内!

在未来10年,我国富豪财富增速预计可达120%-130%。顶级富豪们的移民路径和资金走向,无疑将对国内甚至全球经济发展产生重要影响。

然而商人中也有真正的民族企业家,像中国首善曹德旺告诫子女一旦接受美国绿卡,则无法再继承他的财产,娃哈哈宗庆后则是强制要求全家注销绿卡。

然而像宗庆后、曹德旺这样的民族企业家毕竟是少数,所以2019年银监会公开表示,禁止通过开放式方式增加非标资金池业务,同时增加信托现金管理规模。

从限、留两方面稳住富豪,这意味着“非标”收缩已成必然。