Summary

Damaged Human Lungs Can Be Repaired by Attaching Them to Pigs, Experiment Shows

Jan 29, 2021 | 🚀 Fathership AI

The sad reality of terminal lung illnesses is that there are simply far more patients than there are donor lungs available. This isn't just because of the low number of donors, which would be problem enough, but many donor lungs are significantly damaged, rendering them unusable.

By using a new experimental technique, though, such a damaged lung has now been restored to function - by sharing its circulatory system with that of a living pig. This leverages the body's self-repair mechanisms to exceed the capabilities of current donor lung restoration techniques.

"It is the provision of intrinsic biological repair mechanisms over long-enough periods of time that enabled us to recover severely damaged lungs that cannot otherwise be saved," say the lead researchers, surgeon Ahmed Hozain and biomedical engineer John O'Neill of Columbia University.

The underlying principle is similar to an existing donor lung restoration technique called ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP), which involves placing a lung in a sterile dome attached to a ventilator, pump, and filters.

The lung's temperature is maintained at human body temperature, and a bloodless solution containing oxygen, nutrients, and protein is circulated through it. That circulation, when liquid is pumped through the organ, is the perfusion part.

EVLP has helped save lives by keeping donor lungs stable and even repairing them a little. But the time window afforded by the technique is somewhat limited - it can only be conducted for up to eight hours, which is not a lot of time for the biological repair functions to kick in.

It's that precious time that the research team has bought with their pigs, and years of research.

In 2017, O'Neill led the development of the xenogeneic (cross-species) cross-circulation platform. Last year, two of the researchers, biomedical engineer Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic of Columbia University and surgeon Matthew Bacchetta of the Vanderbilt Lung Institute, led a study in which they restored damaged pig lungs by attaching them to other pigs.

Earlier this year, the team extended the operation time of the platform to four days.

Now, the researchers have revealed that they have successfully used the same technique to repair five damaged human lungs by connecting them to pigs, including one severely injured lung that had failed to recover function using EVLP.

"We were able to recover a donor lung that failed to recover on the clinical ex vivo lung perfusion system, which is the current standard of care," Vunjak-Novakovic said. "This was the most rigorous validation of our cross-circulation platform to date, showing great promise for its clinical utility."

In the study, six donor lungs were obtained by the team after being rejected for transplantation. The five lungs in the experiment were attached via a jugular cannula to anaesthetised pigs that had been immunosuppressed, to prevent the pig's immune system from attacking the lungs. The sixth control lung was attached to a pig that was not immunosuppressed.

All of the lungs were subjected to 24 hours of xenogeneic cross-circulation, while the researchers carefully monitored the physiological and biochemical parameters of the organs.

The control lung did not take long to break down. It started developing extra fluid, the circulation broke down, while inflammatory and immune markers rose, blood clots formed, and respiratory function fell - all consistent with hyperacute rejection.

The contrast with the experimental lungs couldn't have been more remarkable. Even though all had previously demonstrated injuries, the lungs showed significant improvement in cellular viability, tissue quality, inflammatory response, and respiratory function.

The change in the lung that had failed EVLP in particular underwent a jaw-dropping turnaround. It had spent a total of 22.5 hours on ice, and received 5 hours of EVLP. After this, the right lung was accepted for transplant, but the left lung was simply too damaged. It had persistent swelling and fluid build-up. Multiple transplant centres had turned it down.

After 24 hours sharing blood with a pig, though, the damaged lung started to show signs of repair; not full recovery, but a lot more than had been thought possible. This suggests, the researchers said, that their cross-circulation platform could be used in conjunction with EVLP to help restore lungs that EVLP can't save alone.

It's not quite ready for clinical use, though. For one, the pigs could share things other than their blood. Like disease, for instance.

Because of this, any clinical use of the technique would require medical-grade animals, which would not be cheap - but it's nonetheless something that is under investigation for use in xenotransplantation, in which pigs' organs can be transplanted in human recipients. (This is currently being tested in baboons.)

The other option is that the human recipients themselves could potentially become the basis for the cross-circulation platform, being attached to the lungs they will themselves receive, and maybe even other kinds of organs one day.

"Modifications to the xenogeneic cross-circulation circuit could enable investigation and recovery of other human organs, including livers, hearts, kidneys and limbs," the researchers wrote in their paper.

"Ultimately, we envision that xenogeneic cross-circulation could be utilised as both a translational research platform to augment transplantation research and as a biomedical technology to help address the organ shortage by enabling the recovery of previously unsalvageable donor organs."

The research has been published in Nature Medicine.


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新加坡7人“换妻”迷奸案细节公布!妻子被下药,全程录像直播...

Nov 03, 2022 | 🚀 Fathership AI

几名新加坡男子,在网上论坛认识后,沉浸在性幻想中无法自拔。

为了满足他们心中变态的好奇心,他们开始筹划换妻,并下药迷倒自己的妻子,让其他男子强奸自己的妻子!

昨天(10月31日),这起轰动新加坡一时的罪案在新加坡法庭进行了审理,涉案的七人中,有四人认罪,其中一人当场被判刑。

因为情况太过恶劣,为了保护受害人法院并未透漏她们的任何资料。被告人的名字也全部用字母代替。

回顾这起案件,这些男子的行径着实震碎了正常人的三观……

新加坡这名男子迷倒妻子 邀请其他人强奸并直播录像!

新加坡本体媒体《8视界新闻网》报道,法庭文件透露这起案件的主犯,是一名化名为J的新加坡男子。

J今年52岁,有着一份正当的工作,犯案时是一名业务拓展经理。这些年他和妻子一共生下了三个孩子,一家人原本很和谐地生活在一起。

不过在平静的生活下,J内心里涌动着一些邪恶的想法。

终于,在2010年,他在一个网络论坛上遇到了很多和自己臭味相投的人。在这个虚拟的平台,J肆无忌惮表露出自己的变态性癖,并发表了想玩换妻游戏的言论。

在这里,他们一起分享了很多有关“换妻”的想法。

聊着聊着,有一天他再也忍不住自己内心的想法,问自己妻子是否愿意接受3p。不出所料的,J的妻子拒绝了这个“提议”。

不过,这并没有阻止J付诸行动。

在一开始,包括J在内的一些人纷纷在家中安装网络摄像头。之后,他们会挑选时间告知网友相关的账号和密码,让他们自行观看自己和妻子的性爱视频。

经过一段时间后,J还是不满足。

于是,在某一天他下药迷晕了自己的妻子,然后邀请其他网友来家中与其发生关系!

随着事态的发展,J越来越沉迷其中……2013年,趁着妻子身体不适的时候,J还偷偷换了药物,再次邀请朋友来家中迷奸妻子。

这次,J竟然还打开了网络直播!

沉迷于“换妻游戏”,J不仅仅是让别人和自己妻子发生关系,同时他也跟其中一名网友K“商量好了”,趁着K迷晕自己妻子的工夫和她发生了性关系。

在某种程度上,K的行为更加恶劣,他甚至自己充当了摄像师的角色,拍下了J和自己妻子发生关系时的整段性爱视频……

渐渐的,J的妻子在不知情的情况下跟多人发生了性行为,相关视频还被上传到网络。

在当时,引起了相当多人的关注。

换妻行为曝光报警 更多人牵涉其中受重罚

J本以为这件事可以一直继续下去,不料在今年,他的妻子无意中看见丈夫手机在播放视频。

在好奇心的驱使下,她看到视频内容,这才恍然发现:

在过去的几年里,丈夫在暗地里进行了多次换妻活动,而自己在不知情的状态下被多次迷晕,在和他人强行强行发生关系后还被拍照记录……

拿着证据,J的妻子当面质问K,而K也承认自己曾经和昏迷的她有过性行为,并将自己妻子迷晕交给J的事实。

在得知真相后,J的妻子立即选择报警。随着案件的调查,调查人员惊讶地发现,还有更多人参与其中。

其中,有一名参加了J“举办的”换妻活动的L,也对自己的妻子如法炮制。

在一次在作案时,L的妻子尽管被下药后蒙住眼睛,在中途清醒了过来。

但L居然并未因此感到害怕而终止犯罪活动,而是要求自己一名同事P直接强行跟自己妻子发生关系,幸而L的妻子及时挣脱逃离,才免遭摧残。

之后,P在一封信中交代了全部经过,并表示自己不知道受害人并不知情才犯下罪案。

但法律并不会因为他的解释而对他开恩,最总P被判处三年监禁。他是涉案七名男子中,第一个被判刑的男子。

还有四人也已认罪,等待下一轮审讯。相信在严明的法律下,他们肯定无法逃脱坐牢。

不过,涉案情节严重的K在落网后,一再向警方和法官说自己有心理疾病,并要求医生为其检测,意图逃脱刑罚。

新加坡心理卫生院诊断后,确认了K患有偷窥症。但在审理中法官认为K对自己的非法行为是知情的,依旧是犯罪行为。

K对法院的说法表示不服,并要求开庭申辩。

但K的犯罪事实已被揭露,并且为自己的行为供认不讳,加上此案件牵连甚广,性质过于恶劣,估计也是难逃法律制裁。


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