Summary

A Study Reveals: Your Body Knows When Death Is Near, And It All Begins In The Nose

Jan 29, 2021 | 🚀 Fathership

It is not uncommon to hear family members talk about a loved one who has passed away. One interesting and surprising anecdote often heard is a person’s behavior prior to dying like; saying goodbye, getting closure on troubled relationships, and even giving away prized possessions. It seems they may know something before anyone else does.

Some may argue this is purely coincidence while others are confident people know when death is near. It is only natural to try to understand the death of someone we love or make sense of what happens in those final moments. Scientists know when someone dies, the body immediately begins to break down.

Putrescine, for example, is a foul and toxic scent; the result of decomposition. Researchers have come to realize humans subconsciously recognize this putrefying odor. Not only that, the scent, when released, causes an immediate response.

ANIMALS HAVE THE ABILITY TO SMELL THE SCENT OF OTHERS, PROMPTING THEM TO REACT ACCORDINGLY.

This is the equivalent to sensing danger whether from a predator or stronger and bigger animal from their pack.

A STUDY CONDUCTED BY ARNAUD WISMAN FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF KENT’S SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY IN CANTERBURY, UK AND ILAN SHIRA FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES IN ARKANSAS’ TECH UNIVERSITY IN RUSSELLVILLE, AK HAVE DISCOVERED ANIMALS AND HUMANS MIGHT NOT BE SO DIFFERENT AFTER ALL.

The ability to detect chemical scents is part of survival across the species. The threat of death is revealed through smell to humans.

PUTRESCINE IS A CHEMICAL COMPOUND RELEASED WHEN A BODY DECAYS.

It also has a secondary function as a warning signal. People have both a conscious and subconscious reaction when they are exposed to this scent.

THERE WERE FOUR DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED USING PUTRESCINE, AMMONIA, AND WATER TO STUDY PEOPLE’S REACTION.

One of the experiments included putrescine exposed at a site, people’s immediate response was to move away from the area.

THIS IS THE SAME RESPONSE AROUND FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT REACTION.

When animals feel they are in danger there are only two responses; fight off the threat or run away from it. The study revealed people react similarly.

THERE ARE OTHER SCENTS HUMANS RESPOND TO AS WELL LIKE SWEAT.

Separate studies have shown that sweat taken from people in fearful situations and exposed for others to smell generated an automatic and startled reflex.

“WE DO NOT KNOW WHY WE LIKE (OR DISLIKE) SOMEONE’S SMELL, AND WE’RE USUALLY NOT AWARE OF HOW SCENT INFLUENCES OUR EMOTIONS, PREFERENCES, AND ATTITUDES,” EXPLAIN WISMAN AND SHIRA.

“It is hard to think of a scent as frightening,” comment the two leading researchers. These scents make people more aware and vigilant of their surroundings.

HUMANS’ NATURAL REACTION TO DANGER IS NOT TO FACE IT AND FIGHT.

People tend to avoid any type of confrontation, whether its verbal or physical. For the most part, folks choose to distance themselves until fight is the only option left.

THE RESPONSES MAY BE DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER BUT PUTRESCINE AND SEX PHEROMONE ARE BASED ON SCENT.

Sex pheromones are chemicals released by the body to attract a mate while putrescine works as a warning signal. “Putrescine signals a different type of message than pheromones, but people’s responses to putrescine (avoidance and hostility) do seem indeed to be the opposite of responses to many sexual pheromones,” explain the research duo.

DURING THE STUDY, PEOPLE WERE NOT AWARE THEY HAD A NEGATIVE REACTION TO THE SCENT.

“People are not familiar with putrsescine and do not consciously associate it with death or fear,” admits Wisman and Shira.

Unrepentant teen with a long list of offences is why some parents shouldn't breed

Nov 25, 2021 | 🚀 Fathership

Ralph Wee Yi Kai, a 19-year-old Singaporean man, has pleaded guilty to eight charges on Nov. 25 during his plead guilty mention before District Judge May Mesenas.

The charges include consuming weed, causing unnecessary suffering to a frog, possessing imitation tobacco products, trespassing into the rhinoceros enclosure at the Singapore Zoo, and committing mischief by damaging property, reported CNA.

Another six charges will be considered during his sentencing.

Probation is "not realistic"

Wee pleaded guilty via video link from his place in remand, where he has been since Nov. 6.

The prosecution strongly objected to a probation suitability report, noting that Wee is "beyond the control of his parents, which renders probation unsuitable", according to CNA.

The prosecution asserted that probation "is not realistic" for Wee, based on his repeated offences and conduct in court.

They cited his "blatant disregard for rules", and urged for a reformative training suitability report instead.

Deputy Public Prosecutor Melissa Lee said Wee "has a tendency to abuse drugs and alcohol", which caused him to behave aggressively towards his parents.

He also "posed a risk" to them, which led him to be admitted to the Institute of Mental Health.

"Never expected it to come to this"

Wee's defence lawyer Shashi Nathan requested for the addition of a probation suitability report, according to CNA.

Shashi maintains that his family is able to supervise Wee, and added that his client "comes from a good family" who are "able to look after him".

He said that Wee was undergoing "a severe emotional crisis" when he committed his offences, and shared that the case has also affected Wee's family, especially after their home address was released to the press.

"While Ralph understands that what he did was wrong, he never expected it to come to this," said Shashi.

Difference between probation and reformative training

Wee was ordered to go though both assessments for a probation suitability report and a reformative training report, reported Yahoo News.

Offenders who undergo probation will not have a criminal record, while reformative training, which provides a more structured environment, results in a criminal record.

What Wee's lawyer said

Wee's lawyer said his client acted out after breaking up with his girlfriend, 18, who was the one who filmed the video of Wee backflipping in the zoo.

The defence lawyer, Shashi, said Wee spiralled into an emotional crisis as a result of his break-up.

Wee is homeschooled.

The court was told Wee saw a video of a man riding a giraffe and decided to make a video in the rhino enclosure, Yahoo News reported.

The ex-girlfriend had filmed the act and posted it on her private Snapchat account.

Wee posted it on his public TikTok account and a police report was made by a zoo personnel within the same day.

Wee removed the video when he was told to do so by the police, but reposted it on Dec. 18, before being told to remove it again, claiming he thought the video had been made private when he reposted it.

Wee had also included a link in his Instagram account biography to directed to a page selling t-shirts with the words "rhino ralph".

But he denied creating the merchandise profile.

He later removed the link.

Wee will return to court on Dec. 20 for his sentencing.

Timeline of events with updated details

Oct. 9, 2020, 2:40am: Allegedly committed an act of vandalism by hitting an information panel at a bus stop in Sixth Avenue, off Bukit Timah Road, causing S$900 in damage.

Allegedly caused damage to two cars -- S$2,800 to a Mercedes-Benz and more than S$1,600 to a BMW -- in nearby Sixth Crescent.

A taxi driver passing by reported him to the police, as Wee was standing in the middle of the road with a beer bottle in hand.

Dec. 16, 2020: Wee was placed on compulsory supervision for 60 months from Dec. 16. He was required to present himself for urine tests on each Tuesday and Thursday, but failed to turn up on four occasions.

He was placed on e-tagging during this period of time, after having been charged for his earlier offences.

He had to stay at home from 10pm to 6am as part of his bail conditions.

Dec. 17, 2020, 2.40pm: Accused of trespassing into the rhinoceros enclosure and taking a video.

Dec. 18, 2020: Reposted zoo video, despite taking it down earlier after being told to do so by the police. Told to remove video again.

Dec. 24, 2020: Accused of abusing a frog, which subsequently died, by hitting a ball against it on a foosball table, causing "unnecessary pain and suffering".

The incident allegedly took place at a Sentosa Cove property.

July 2021: First hauled to court and charged with two counts of mischief, as well as one count each of vandalism and criminal trespass.

Bail was then set at S$15,000.

Aug. 6, 2021: Allegedly consumed cannabis while out on bail. Arrested at his residence and two urine samples obtained tested positive for weed. S$15,000 bail revoked.

Sep. 14, 2021: Allegedly possessed an e-vaporiser and six e-cigarette pods at a ward in the Institute of Mental Health.

Three police officers showed up at IMH, where Wee was warded, to arrest him for failing to attend court.

He was admitted to IMH due to his drug and alcohol abuse, as had acted aggressively towards his parents when they demanded the drugs from him.

He was warded in IMH due to the risk he posed to his parents.

Oct. 13, 2021: Charged with one count of drug consumption while still in remand.

Bail raised to S$20,000 and Wee was released.

While out on second bail, Wee committed a string of offences, including cutting his electronic tag, according to ST, as well as not reporting for his urine tests on a few occasions, CNA reported.

The prosecution has called for an urgent bail review hearing to have Wee's second bail revoked for the alleged fresh offences.

Oct. 26, 2021: Allegedly cut a S$100 GPS ankle tag at an address on Leedon Road at about 12:10am.

Prior to this act, Wee was upset at his father, who had asked Wee to sleep early since he had to report for his urine test in the morning.

After arguing with his father, Wee decided to leave the house, and used pliers to cut off his e-tag before cycling to his friend’s house.

Upon discovering that Wee was missing, his father called the police.

The e-tag, worth S$100, was damaged and could no longer be used.

It was found in Wee’s house.

Oct. 28, 2021: Allegedly possessed an e-cigarette pod at the Leedon Road address.

Nov. 5, 2021: Warrant of arrest issued, as Wee could not wake up to attend court.

Nov. 6, 2021: Wee arrested.

Nov. 12, 2021: Slapped with four additional charges.

Nov. 25, 2021: Pleaded guilty to consuming weed, causing unnecessary suffering to a frog, possessing imitation tobacco products, trespassing into a rhino enclosure, and committing mischief by damaging property belonging to others.

Ordered to go though assessments for a probation suitability report and a reformative training report.